The art of Europe was never the product of a single culture working in isolation. This seminar will explore the multicultural aspects of medieval and early modern Europe by focusing on the visual culture of groups who defined themselves or are today defined by nationality, race, or religion. For each lecture, Graduate Students will be assigned additional readings. They will write an annotated bibliography of all the readings to be turned in at the end of the semester. We will meet for an additional two or three weeks to discuss the interpretive and methodological problems and ideas associated with the readings. Graduate students will be expected to complete all the requirements of the class in addition to writing a substantial research paper due at the end of the semester. Graduate/Undergraduate Equivalency: HART 435. Mutually Exclusive: Credit cannot be earned for HART 535 and HART 435.